APA style is the citation style of the American Psychological Association. It is widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
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Online APA Style Resources
Citation Examples: Books (Print)
Book (Single author)
Lightman, A. P. (2002). The diagnosis. New York: Vintage Books.
Book (Multiple authors)
Fubini, D., Price, C., & Zollo, M. (2007). Mergers: Leadership, performance and corporate
health. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dickens, J. (Ed.). (1995). Family outing: A guide for parents of gays, lesbians and
bisexuals. London: Peter Owen.
Essay or Chapter in Edited Book
Cohen, B.J. (2006). The macrofoundations of monetary power. In D.M. Andrews (Ed.),
International monetary power (pp. 31-50). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Citation Examples: Articles (Print)
Journal Article (Print)
O'Connell, D. C., & Kowal, S. (2003). Psycholinguistics: A half century of monologism.
The American Journal of Psychology, 116, 191-212.
Hall, R. E. (2000). Marriage as vehicle of racism among women of color. Psychology: A Journal
of Human Behavior, 37(2), 29-40.
Koremenos, B., Lipson, C., & Snidal, D. (2001). The rational design of international institutions.
International Organization, 55, 761-799.
NOTE: Issue number is included only if each issue begins on page 1.
Lacayo, R. (2002, Sept. 23). Kids are us! Time, 160, 68-70.
Hall, C. (2002, August 18). Reliving the 1200’s with sweat, muscle, and no-tech
tools. New York Times, p. B27.
Warren, S. A. (1977). Mental retardation and environment. In International encyclopedia of
psychiatry, psychology, psychoanalysis, and neurology (Vol. 7, pp. 202-207).
New York: Aesculapius Publishers.
Citation Examples: Electronic Resources
- Many scholarly publishers have begun assigning digital object intentifiers (DOI). A DOI is a unique alpha-numeric string that identifies content and provides a permanent link to the article's internet location. When a DOI is available, include it instead of the URL.
- You do not have to include the database name unless the book or document is extremely hard to find. If you inlcude the database name, do not include the database URL.
Journal article (From library database with DOI assigned)
Schimpff, H. (2010). State education finance and governance profile: Kentucky.
Peabody Journal Of Education, 85(1), 70-73. doi:10.1080/01619560903523839
Journal article (From library database with no DOI assigned)
Sillick, T.J., & Schutte, N.S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between
perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2),
38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap/article/view/71/100
Park, J. When race and religion collide: The effect of religion on interracial friendship during
college.Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, Vol 5(1), Mar 2012, 8-21. Retrieved from
Newspaper article (From library database)
Smith, A. (2005, February 5). Fed official suggests early end to stimulus effort.
The New York Times. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/hnpnewyorktimes
Thorpe, W.H. (1956). Learning and instinct in animals.
Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.b4091950
Tufts University Archives and Special Collections. (1999). Women’s bodies, women’s
property. Retrieved September 30, 2003 from Tufts University Digital Collections
and Archives web site: http://nils.lib.tufts.edu/archives/Exhibits/Law/index.html.